Tarpless tech a ripe choice

Everyday more of the world’s leading industry retailers, wholesalers, growers, and distribution centres are putting their trust in Ecotops’s state of the art Ripening rooms.

Heuch Fresh | Ripening Rooms | Ecotop Australia

An international network at the forefront of research and development in ripening systems and have allowed Ecotop rooms to advance the complete package in ripening.
With stand-out features in the tarp-less technology built into all rooms.
Tarp systems can cause uneven airflow, increased maintenance, pathogens, increased man-handling time and tend to be noisy and inefficient.
Ecotop have developed a multi-directional direction air flow system which removes the need for these tarps, is quieter, distributes air evenly, requires less maintenance and is more hygienic.


In operation internationally for over 15 years with over a thousand rooms, in multiple countries, for various fruits and varying business successfully commissioned.
Clients such as Chiquita, Dole and more have adopted the Ecotop system due to its superior ripening quality, low-cost operation, and unique multi-functional room operation.
Since opening an Ecotop ripening facility in April 2019, Montague (Australian owned and operated fruit business since 1948) have seen an increased demand for the use of their rooms and have since expanding their offering to 11×24 pallet rooms totaling 264 pallets of ripening capability.

Key features:

Variable temperature and humidity-control
Energy Efficient (increased by 35-45% compared to other systems)
24hr Monitoring of Ethylene, Oxygen, Temperature, Humidity
Gas tight doors
Multi directional airflow
Multi-purpose design (ripening, pull-down, storage)
Single tier, double tier, or triple tier racking

The enhanced specification Ecotop Ripening rooms offering a ‘best-in-class’ fruit ripening system for the controlled and uniform ripening and storage of exotic produce such as bananas, avocados, mangos, papayas, kiwis and more, as well as achieving low energy consumption, low noise levels and reduced ongoing maintenance costs.

“The results speak for themselves: higher quality and colour, guaranteed uniformity, improved product with extended shelf life.”

Steve Oakley Director of Ecotop Australia

Ripening facility QLD


The versatility of the rooms has also allowed the company to explore alternative use cases such as temperature-controlled treatment for plants. The developed treatment minimises infection risk in initial stages of plant growth without the use of harmful chemicals or pesticides.

In September 2018, Australia’s first Ecotop Ripening room was commissioned in Melbourne’s Southeast, for the purpose of demonstrating Ecotop’s ripening capabilities. You can experience Ecotop Ripening rooms in action at their fully functional showrooms located in Melbourne’s southeast.




















Nick Hanley
0488 111 845
1300 007 224


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Top 5 cooling methods for fruit and vegetables


Top 5 Cooling methods for fruit and Veg

Cooling methods for fruit and vegetables :

Around 6.26 million tonne of fruit and vegetables are grown in Australia in each year, roughly 20% of that is for export equating to $2.6 billion dollars to the economy. A CSIRO study found that Australia loses at least an estimate 18-22% of its fruit and vegetable biomass during the production and processing/packing stages also known as ‘post-harvest’. Cooling fruits and vegetables during these crucial stages is paramount to reducing this waste.

The storage life of fresh fruit and vegetables differs with each type, variety and pre-harvest conditions. Regulation of storage life can be managed by monitoring and controlling key factors during post-harvest management. Suitable control of temperature and relative humidity is vital to maximising storage life and quality of each produce.

Temperature is the single main influence in postharvest quality of vegetables. The temperature of produce drives water loss, changes in metabolic activity, loss of flavour, texture and nutrients and the development of rots.

Temperature effects are often divided into three main classes:

  • Low temperature effects
  • Mid-range temperature effects
  • High temperature damage

Each has its own affect on quality such as freezing damage, chilling injury, rots and mould, flavour changes, colour changes, softening, wilting and dehydration. Quality is very much in the eye of the beholder. Different members within a given supply chain will all have different ideas of what constitutes good quality.

Respiration and transpiration are the most important postharvest processes affecting storage life and quality of vegetables.

Postharvest life can be prolonged and quality can be maintained by reducing the rate of respiration and transpiration.

Pre-cooling and storage at low temperatures slow down the physiological and biochemical processes associated with deterioration and decay. Low temperatures also reduce water loss through transpiration and delay the growth of micro-organisms which cause rot. An increase in the temperature of 10°C can increase the rate of deterioration and decay by two to three times.

Here are the Top 5 cooling methods for fruit and vegetables to optimise storage life for fresh produce, along with their relative advantages and disadvantages:


room cooling

hydro cooling


forced air cooling

vacuum cooling



  • Do not load pre-cooling facility beyond its optimum capacity.
  • When stacking produce, allow adequate air-circulation to ensure all vegetables can be evenly cooled.
  • Use proper receptacles (such as vented boxes and baskets for forced-air cooling, and waxed cartons or Styrofoam boxes for hydro-cooling).
  • Transfer vegetables out from the pre-cooling facility immediately after pre-cooling, to avoid overcooling or dehydration of the vegetables.
  • Use potable water for precoolers to minimise any food safety concerns.
  • Separate ethylene-sensitive vegetables from ethylene producing ones.
  • If a chiller is used for precooling, keep it closed at all times to minimise temperature and relative humidity fluctuations.

For all pre-cooling and post-harvest needs speak to the team at Heuch Fresh.

1300 001 952





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Bakery vacuum cooling, 4 Economic Advantages.

Bakery vacuum cooling brings much more than just fast cooling for Bread & Bakery applications, it will take over a part of your baking process. Up to 1/3 of your baking time will be transferred from the oven to the vacuum cooler, where your product will continue to bake, while cooling down at the same time.

Vacuum Cooling explained


During the cooling process the pressure in the chamber is reduced continuously, thus reducing the boiling point of water and forcing the water in the bread to cook. The boiling energy (=heat) is taken from the bread; as an effect, the bread gets colder. As you continue to cook the water, the gelatinization process continues in the vacuum cooler.

Vacuum Cooling will become a part of your baking process, by moving the last 20 – 40% of your baking time to the vacuum cooler.

During the cooling process, the pressure in the chamber – and thus the boiling point of water – is continuously reduced; the moisture in the bread will start to boil. The presence of steam during the process allows the starch gelation process to continue, allowing your products to further bake, while cooling at the same time.

This process takes place at an increasingly lower temperature, because the cooking energy (=heat) is directly extracted from the bread.

With bakery vacuum cooling you will transfer the final stage of the baking process to the vacuum cooler: in the oven the bread is formed and in the vacuum chamber it stabilizes. This results in many quality advantages besides faster cooling, amongst others you will:

  • improve the crust and the overall product crispness,
  • prolong shelf life and reduce reject rates thanks to minimized bacteria growth,
  • get more stability in shape, an increased product volume and a more equal and softer texture.

Your economic advantages lie in substantial higher productivity, energy saving, space reduction & reduced overall investment costs.

Without vacuum baking:After the introduction of vacuum baking:
Baking time:24 minutesBaking time:17 minutes(-30%)
Cooling time:30 minutesCooling time:2½ minutes(-90%)
Daily output:8,000 pcsDaily output:9,600 pcs(+20%)


  1. Increase productivity

With bakery vacuum cooling it is possible to reduce your baking time by up to 35%. As an effect, you can produce up to 40% more bread with your same amount of ovens! It sounds like magic, but a trial at our experience center will quickly show you how much faster your products can be baked.

  1. Save on energy

As you will transfer the last phase of your baking process to the vacuum cooler, you will also save on baking energy. Roughly, our vacuum coolers will require only between 1 and 2 kWh to cool down 100 kg of bread! This is comparable to the energy you will save in your oven, plus you can skip all additional cooling costs.

  1. Increase space productivity

Hours of cooling can be reduced to only minutes. If you want to slice the bread you probably will need to include some waiting time, otherwise your bread is ready to pack when it comes out of the cooler, thus reducing your cooling space by up to 100%!

  1. Reduce your total investment cost

At Weber Cooling, one vacuum cooler costs around the same as you would otherwise pay for a new oven! Considering that one vacuum cooler can cool products for 3 to 5 ovens and vacuum will increase your production capacity by up to 40%, with one vacuum cooler you can gain an extra baking capacity of up to 2 extra ovens.


Bakery vacuum cooling gives you free added baking capacity and increases your quality & shelf life at the same time!



Weber Cooling for bread and Bakery.

Contact Heuchfresh to find out more.

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“We use Weber Vacuum Cooling to extend shelf-life of our herbs”

“We use Weber Vacuum Cooling to extend shelf-life of our herbs”

While perishability is in the nature of fresh produce, some products are more perishable than others and therefore require extra attention and innovation to ensure that its shelf-life is as long as possible, and that the product arrives to the customer with the best quality achievable. This is something with which La Corsaria is very familiar. To ensure that their products are as fresh as possible upon arrival, this Colombian herb grower and shipper invested in an innovative vacuum cooling system.

Decreased foodservice business lowers demand in 2020

La Corsaria grows many different herbs, including rosemary, chives, oregano, thyme, bay leaf, tarragon and basil, but the majority of their production centers around mint. “We have about 26 hectares of total production and around 80% of that is dedicated to mint,” says Ricardo Angel. To ensure the optimal freshness of their herbs, La Corsaria ships all of their product by air. “The United States is our biggest market, but we also sell to Canada, Europe and the UK. We have a very fast turnover time with the airfreight, and are able to supply year-round,” Angel shares.

Due to the pandemic, the demand for fresh cut herbs has taken a hit. “Compared with 2019, the demand in 2020 was down around 30%. This has mostly been due to the closures of foodservice. The horeca sector is very important for mint, so with foodservice functioning at reduced capacities or sometimes even being closed completely, our demand has been down,” Angel explains.

Quality is even more important now

Fortunately, La Corsaria has been able to continue working and growing without any major hitches. “We have continued growing without any major challenges and feel very fortunate that we’ve been able to continue on with our full staff without having to downsize. We try to have as positive a workplace as possible and also believe that our quality is one of the reasons for our success,” says Angel. In their search for continued innovation and improvement of their quality, La Corsaria decided to invest in a vacuum cooling system designed by Dutch company Weber Cooling.

“We received the machine last year and have been using it for about seven months now,” Angel says. “We are always investigating ways of further improving our product and our quality and we realized that the cold chain is one of the main pieces of the puzzles that can cause challenges which can affect the overall end-result. So, we wanted to strengthen our cold chain by incorporating this vacuum cooling machine.”

Extending shelf-life

The vacuum cooling method works to ‘pre-cool’ products prior to adding them to the cold chain. The produce is cooled down through the evaporation of moisture from inside the product itself, which takes energy away from the product in the form of heat. “The machine cools our herbs very rapidly, and we get down to about 2 degrees Celsius within 15 minutes, which is the perfect temperature for the herbs,” says Angel.

The way in which the machine cools the product – by evaporating some of its moisture – has benefits too. “Normally, you’d think that drying out the product would be negative, but it actually helps to further elongate the shelf life. The capillary water inside the plant causes condensation during the cold chain process, which can raise the temperature in the surrounding area and affect the arrival quality. By removing the excess water and slightly drying the product, this isn’t an issue anymore, and shelf-life is extended,” Angel explains.

In addition to the extended shelf-life delivered by this drying process, the rapid efficiency of the vacuum cooling also helps to extend the product’s shelf-life, while simultaneously conserving energy for the company. “When we use our normal refrigeration system, it takes anywhere between six and seven hours for the herbs to reach the desired temperature. With the Weber Cooling vacuum cooler, it only takes about 15 minutes. This means that we use our energy much more efficiently, which reduces operation costs. Additionally, we are able to buy ourselves a whole extra day of shelf-life because we don’t have to wait those hours for the herbs to cool down,” Angel shares.

“We always strive to deliver the best product to the client and want to work with cutting-edge technology to do so. It’s an investment, but the vacuum cooling machine makes us more competitive in the market, reduces risk and improves our arrival quality, allowing us to provide the best product and service to our customers,” Angel concludes.


Nick Hanley

Heuch Fresh
Agent for Weber Cooling
1300 001 952

This Article first appeared in Fresh Plaza: https://www.freshplaza.com/article/9292521/we-use-weber-vacuum-cooling-to-extend-shelf-life-of-our-herbs/
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Ecotop impresses with new ‘world class’ ripening technology.

Arcella Bananas Company has signed a 2 year agreement to use Montagues state-of-the-art Ecotop Ripening facilities in Rocklea QLD.

Arcella has gained access to Montague’s produce and packing facility in Brisbane to ripen its bananas after the companies signed an initial two-year lease.

Ecotop ripening

Montagues new ripening facilities

Montague opened their new produce facility at the Brisbane Markets in Rocklea, Queensland in April 2019. The 5,578m2 purpose-built facility is a fully automated, temperature-controlled environment, complete with a cold storage space monitored 24/7, and ripening rooms equipped with the latest European tarp-less technology. The specialised equipment introduced in the facility ensures the reduction of ethylene and airborne pathogens which offers control over the banana ripening process, a feature that captured the attention of Arcella Bananas Company, according to Dom Arcella.

“We are delighted to team-up with Montague to utilise their world-class facilities and access this new technology to ripen our Arcella Bananas. We think consumers will be very pleased by the outstanding quality and flavour of the fruit ripened in Rocklea,” Arcella said.

Ecotop Ripening Australia offers a ‘best-in-class’ fruit ripening system for the controlled and uniform ripening of exotic fruits such as bananas, avocados, mangos, papayas, kiwis and more.

The Ecotop system has been in operation internationally for over 15 years with over over a thousand rooms, in multiple countries, for various fruits and varying business topographies successfully commissioned.

“Our feedback is that they have been impressed with our system, ease of operation and functionality. They are experiencing an improvement with the look, taste and extended freshness of the Ecotop ripened fruit.” says Ecotop director Paul Brady

Clients such as Chiquita, Dole and many more have adopted the Ecotop system worldwide due to its superior ripening quality, low cost operation and unique multi-functional room operation.

“Supporting local growers and businesses like Arcella Bananas is of great importance to us here at Montague,” said Hamish Montague, General Manager of Montague Queensland. “We will continue to innovate in fresh produce industries, delivering excellent produce for our consumers while striving to be energy-efficient and environmentally-friendly,” he concluded.

For more information contact:

Heuch Fresh

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Jet Pre-Cooling : The Latest Technology

Heuch Fresh have announced the introduction of a new portable Jet Pre-Cooling systems – the MPU (Mobile Pre-Cooling Unit). The MPU is a forced air-cooling unit that provides greater air flow and shorter precooling times than a typical post-harvest cooling system. The sleek new and improved design is European engineered by international leader BG Door and built to Australian standards.

Mobile Pre-Cooling Unit

The latest technology in jet pre-cooling the Mobile Pre-Cooling Unit (MPU)


Many Australian growers grow too comfortable with the Jet Pre-Cooling systems they have used for many years but will often overlook factors such as optimal cooling times for their produce. With the addition of an MPU growers can see a reduction in their cooling times by up to 75%.

How Pre-Cooling delivers:

By quick pre-cooling your fruits and vegetables both respiration & transpiration can be reduced by quickly removing field heat. Pre-cooling is the rapid removal of field heat from fruits and vegetables as soon as possible after harvesting.

Drastic increase in quality preservation and maximal shelf life, storage/ travel time

• Added value for customers thanks to higher and more consistent quality

• Less waste, reject and claims; saving money, maximising your reputation

• Lower overall energy costs

“It is well known in the industry how essential Jet Pre-cooling is as a postharvest process. The faster you pre-cool, the more time, energy and money you will save” says Steve Oakley, Heuch Fresh managing director “Faster precooling results in produce with a longer shelf life and greater return on investment”

From a technical perspective, the MPU’s powerful 4 kW fan boats an impressive 1210 RPM that has a capacity of 32,000 m³/H, meaning you can cool more product at an impressively faster rate. In addition to this airflow, the MPU also offers plenty of mobility, the unit can be easily moved from one location to another. The unit arrives on site, preassembled and ready for use, you can simple plug the MPU in and you are ready to start cooling. The MPU is also suitable for heating, thawing and drying making it even more versatile for the Australian growers and distribution centres.

Heuch Fresh supply Australia with a range of custom designed pre-cooling solutions as well as supplying the MPU for purchase or rental options.


The MPU control box. Allowing you to adjust fan speed, set a timer, regulate temperature and much more.


For information:
Nick Hanley
Business Development Manager
Heuch Fresh
1300 001 952

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Climate Rooms that create reliable results

Climate Rooms that create reliable results

Nijssen have completed climate rooms for a large number of universities, research institutes, seed producers and propagators worldwide. For all these customers Nijssen designed customised

Nijssen Climate control systems

systems that achieve optimum climatic conditions at any time for a wide range of applications – e.g. germination rooms, tissue culture rooms, vernalisation rooms, GMO-research rooms and entomological research rooms

In-house developed Nijssen climate control systems with intuitive visualization ensure accurate control, monitoring and registration. To guarantee that you achieve consistent, repeatable and reliable results.

In Nijssen climate rooms, plant Lighting conducts indoor cultivation tests under precisely controlled conditions. They also simulate precise daylight conditions at a production site. In cabins, they simultaneously test different light recipes in the same climate conditions. And that also means fast results”

‘The leading edge in refrigeration since 1948. We don’t believe in standard solutions. Every refrigeration, freezing or climate situation is different. Thanks to our expertise and technological know-how, Nijssen Australia have the capability to design truly custom-built systems.’

In partnership with Nijssen, Heuch designs and manufactures walk-in climatised plant growth rooms for a wide range of applications. In climate chambers, temperature, air humidity, CO2, light intensity, air movement and watering can be regulated extremely accurately. The control system enables you to continuously monitor and record various climatic conditions for guaranteed reproducibility.

Seed Germination Rooms are specifically designed to reach the optimum germination conditions for each crop. Available with a full range of options to suit your needs. Custom sizes guarantee the largest growth area within the available space.

Reliable in vitro propagation requires a controlled, sterile environment with optimal conditions. Since any configuration of airflow, light, and shelving is possible, our Tissue Culture Rooms will always meet your requirements.

This allows us to do realistic, representative and reproducible research for every place in the world and for every season,” says Sander Hogewoning director/researcher.

For Nijssen Australian call Heuch Fresh today 1300 001 952

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Softripe technology described as “game-changer” for avocado storage

New avocado ripening facility unveiled with Softripe.

This article first appeared in Fresh Produce Journal

Worldwide Fruit and JD Cooling have unveiled their new “game changing” avocado ripening facility in Spalding, Lincolnshire.

Softripe Tehcnology

L-r: John Dye (Chairman, JD Cooling Group), Mark Everett (Business Unit Director, Worldwide Fruit), Ilona Stylinska (Softripe Manager, Worldwide Fruit), Neal Collishaw (Operations Director, Worldwide Fruit), James Tumber (Specialist Services & Ripening Director, JD Cooling Group).

The new facility uses Softripe technology that’s able to produce better quality fruit thanks to computer atomsphere control, for a more efficient ripening process, with 40 per cent less energy use.

Avocados from the new facility will reach supermarkets in October.

JD Cooling chairman John Dye said independent taste trials of Softripe-stored fruit have demonstrated better quality, flavour and shelf life.

Speaking at the official ribbon cutting, Dye said: “It is not very often something comes along in our industry that is game changing, but Softripe is most certainly that, and indeed the biggest thing to happen in the ripening sector for decades. This facility is going to be a total revolution for the ripe and ready marketplace.

“There’s a lot of noise out there at the moment about other ripening systems, but Softripe is the only one in the world that’s able to control ethylene, CO2 and oxygen levels by communicating directly with the fruit,“ Dye said,

“It also allows suppliers to remove their post ripening grading process and destructive testing and is the only system that can achieve such dramatic increases in shelf life.”


Softripe is a patented ripening process that uses a completely gas-tight chamber together with CO2 absorbers and nitrogen generators to enable optimum levels of ethylene, CO2 and oxygen all to be fully controlled. This allows the unique Softripe software algorithms to establish the optimum conditions for perfect ripening every time.

Softripe rooms

The new facility at Worldwide Fruit’s Spalding operations also delivers greater energy efficiency and more attractive fruit according to JD Cooling.

Neal Collishaw, operations director at Worldwide Fruit said: “Our key strategic direction is to deliver zero waste in all of our processes. Avocados are a notoriously difficult product to ripen in a traditional ripening system.

“Post-ripening, we still had variability among the raw material which can end up on the shelf, leading to consumer dissatisfaction. Softripe now ensures we have a more consistent, superior product and has enabled us to remove the secondary grading from our processes. Along with the reduced ripening cycles, there are clear benefits to producers, distributors, retailers, and consumers.”

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Vacuum Cooling explained

Vacuum Cooling explained.

With high demand on farmers to yield higher quality produce that will keep on supermarket shelves for longer periods, growers and distribution centres are looking for the best solutions to reduce wastage and lower operating costs. Vacuum cooling (VC) is a unique way of cooling. Instead of using (forced) cold air or cold water to cool down your produce, with vacuum you use “evaporative energy” for cooling. By reducing the pressure inside the vacuum room, you force (a fraction of) the product’s own moisture to evaporate. This evaporation costs energy, which is taken from the produce in the form of a temperature reduction.

Vacuum cooling

Vacuum cooling process

What sort of fruit and vegetable is suitable for Vacuum Cooling?

VC is a pre-cooling method where the harvest removed field heat by reducing pressure inside a sealed container which evaporates moisture internally from the product. This process takes away energy which warrants rapid cooling, generally within 15 – 30 minutes for most products. VC works best for produce with a “high surface to weight” and that lose water easily such as lettuce and herbs:

Vacuum Cooling examples

Vacuum Cooling different fruits and vegetables


Steps to vacuum Cooling:

  1. The product is placed in the vacuum cooler and the chamber is sealed
  2. The Vacuum pump starts working and decreases the air pressure in the chamber. The boiling point is consequently lowered.
  3. The boiling process requires heat, withdrawn from the product, allowing it to cool down.
  4. The Vacuum pump drain water-vapor through the condenser
  5. The cycle is finished, the produce is cooled and the pressure returns to 1000 millibar
  6. The condensed water is discharged and the cooling system is ready for the next load

Is it Expensive?

The fast and uniform cooling (the surface and core of the product reach exact the same temperature after VC) results in a substantially longer shelf life of produce and at the same time, saves on energy costs. The VC process is much more cost effective than other traditional cooling technologies as the output capacity, quick turnaround and energy cost reduction reduce overall operational spending. Many companies also offer rental solutions to appeal to seasonal growers.


Where can I get one?

Heuch Fresh offer a range of premium quality solutions for VC and cold chain management, using state-of-the art refrigeration technology and the latest environmentally friendly refrigerants. Together with a world-wide supplier network, they are leading in vacuum cooling technology and are able to supply full cold-chain solutions for cold and hot applications.


Heuch Fresh | Vacuum Coolers | Vacuum Cooling | Weber Group Australia

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Pre-Cooling and cool storage of fresh produce.

Pre-Cooling and cool storage of fresh produce.


Original Article by: Cees Nijssen,
President of Nijssen Koeling b.v., Leiden -The Netherlands


It is the nature of all freshly harvested produce, at ambient temperatures, to deteriorate and die very quickly, within hours for some products.
The post-harvest function of pre-cooling and cold storage is designed to gain time by extending this life cycle long enough for the sensitive produce to arrive on the consumer’s table in fresh and attractive condition.
The natural decline that sets in immediately upon harvesting can never be completely stopped, at least not within our present capabilities, but our knowledge of how to control it is well advanced and is expanding quite rapidly.

The entire thrust of all post-harvest handling is concerned with time.
Essentially, to increase the “time” available to maintain an orderly harvesting, packing, storage, transportation, and marketing program.
Probably the most significant link in this entire chain of events, is the lapse in time between the moment of harvest and pre-cooling. It has been said that every hour saved from the moment of harvest and removal of the field heat can add a day to the useful shelf life of the product.

This fact contributes to the trend towards more pre-cooling facilities being located at the point of harvest, usually without storage for more than one day, designed for this purpose.

The current trend is to pre-cool the product at or close by the point of harvest, with the pre- cooling facility designed to match the rate of harvesting and to pre-cool the product in a matter of several hours or less. In many instances these products are loaded and rolling in less than six hours from the time they have been harvested. This is a far cry from cooling for a day or more.

Pressure cooling or forced air cooling is one of the fastest and most popular method and an extremely useful method of pre-cooling by a positive forcing of air through stacks of palletised produce. The labour factor with this type of plant is easy and low, all types of produce can be handled through the system and as a rule there is no need to handle individual packages.

To achieve fast cooling rates, it is essential that adequate cross venting of the packing be provided, hence close co-operation between the designed packing and the engineer is of the utmost significance. The list of products that can be handled includes most of the fresh produce from leafy vegetables, avocados. grapes, citrus, stone or tree fruit, etc., whether
pre-packaged or in bins.

The most important control parameters for optimal cool storage are temperature, lighting, relative humidity, and gas conditions. From all these factors is temperature the most important one.

There is no single temperature that could be said to be proper for storage of all types of produce, but until a lowest recommended optimal, every degree lower from the ambient temperature will rapidly extend the shelf life of the product. It reduces the rate of respiration mostly to less than 5 percent of the rate at ambient temperatures, also the vigour and rate of of spread of the always present ground diseases is greatly inhibited at low temperatures. unfortunately, the lowest optimal temperature is very secure. Only one degree below that optimum gives an enormous damage to fresh produce, and the damage often goes undetected until the product reaches the shelf, where it takes its toll.

A relative humidity on the order of 95% is preferred for most of the products, it is mistaken To belief that high humidity is associated with mold growth and decay. The reluctance probably arises from confusion between free moisture and highly humidified air, which is a true gas.

High humidity levels, without free moisture, can be automatically maintained by cooling with Filacell, a safe and efficient contact medium that air in direct contact brings with chilled water.

Produce that has been cooled to a temperature of the order 00 C and exposed to ambient air temperatures, will rise in temperature 4 to 5 times faster than would be the case of warm fruit being cooled down. The principal reason for this is the condensing of moisture by the cold
product from the warmer air to which it is exposed. A commonplace analogy is the bathroom mirror accumulating a film of moisture when the shower is being used. This condensation on the fruit not only causes the temperature to rise very quickly, but adds a film of free water to the product, this accelerating the incurrence of mold and decay, as well
as creating a soggy condition within the cartons. This condition, common as it seems to be, is easily prevented by proper cold store-to-carrier
loading arrangements, a cooled airlock, and or a dock shelter to minimize problems.

Temperatures that fluctuate several degrees in a storage atmosphere can cause condensation to take place on the fruit, for the same reason. Even though the averaged 24 hour temperature of such a room appears to be satisfactory there are often frequent hour to hour temperature fluctuations of 50 or more. These fluctuations can usually be traced to coil defrosting and cycling of the refrigeration system, to doors remaining open to the ambient atmosphere, or to overload of the refrigeration system due to warmer incoming fruit. Only with careful plant and equipment design and operation can these problems be avoided. It should be kept in mind that for each one-degree temperature rise of the air leaving the cooling surfaces, the humidity level can be decreased on the order of 4 percent.

Controlled or modified atmosphere of the environment involves the reduction of the normal level of oxygen and carbon dioxide content, and their replacement with nitrogen. Although very useful for long term storage of hard fruit it is requiring precise controls and is somewhat limited in application.

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